Enseñándole a los PIIGS a volar

NUEVA YORK – Los problemas fiscales de Grecia son, como he dicho en muchas oportunidades, sólo la punta de un iceberg global. Ya que el próximo capítulo de la reciente crisis financiera global será el creciente riesgo soberano, especialmente en las economías avanzadas que tienen voluminosos déficits presupuestarios y acumulan grandes cantidades de deuda pública a la vez que socializan las pérdidas financieras privadas para reanimar el crecimiento económico.

Por cierto, la historia sugiere que una recesión severa y la socialización de las pérdidas privadas suelen derivar en un incremento insostenible de la deuda pública. Es más, después de unos años, a las crisis financieras ocasionadas por una deuda y un apalancamiento excesivos les siguen impagos soberanos y/o una inflación alta que aniquila el valor real de las deudas públicas.

Grecia también es una temprana advertencia para la eurozona, donde todas las economías PIIGS (Portugal, Italia, Irlanda, Grecia y España) padecen los problemas gemelos de la sostenibilidad de la deuda pública y la sostenibilidad de la deuda externa. El acceso al euro y las “operaciones de convergencia” alcistas empujaron los rendimientos de los bonos en esos países hacia el nivel de los bonos alemanes, con el consiguiente auge del crédito que favoreció un crecimiento excesivo del consumo.

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