Impuestos y gasto en la India

Un nivel impositivo demasiado alto puede reducir los incentivos y entorpecer el crecimiento. Pero un nivel demasiado bajo puede dar el mismo resultado. Los gobiernos con ingresos fiscales escasos no pueden suministrar servicios públicos básicos. Peor aún, los escasos ingresos fiscales en los países pobres son frecuentemente el resultado de defectos en los sistemas de recaudación de impuestos (más que de las bajas tasas impositivas) que también promueven la poca productividad en las empresas.

La India ilustra la importancia de un sistema de recaudación de impuestos bien diseñado. En Bangalore, las empresas de alta tecnología han construido instalaciones de calidad internacional con prados bien cuidados y redes de comunicación de alta velocidad. Sin embargo, fuera de estas instalaciones hay drenajes abiertos, basura sin recolectar y calles en pésimo estado. Mientras que las empresas de tecnología transmiten instantáneamente terrabytes de información a continentes remotos, el transporte local trabaja a un ritmo casi medieval.

Como resultado, las empresas en Bangalore tienen sus propios servicios de autobuses, contratan a proveedores privados de agua potable e instalan generadores para protegerse de las interrupciones en el suministro eléctrico. El Estado no puede arreglar el desastre porque está en quiebra. La deuda gubernamental de la India es de más del 70% del PIB, de manera que más de la mitad de sus ingresos fiscales se dedican al pago de intereses.

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