An employee works at a desalination plant SAID KHATIB/AFP/Getty Images

水在哪里

汉密尔顿,加拿大—在世界许多地方,已经没有更多常规淡水资源可用于满足不断增长的需求。除了限制经济发展,缺少足够淡水资源还会导致冲突、社会动乱和移民,威胁到数十亿人的福祉。解决这一挑战的唯一办法,是彻底反思水资源规划和管理,强调对非常规水资源的创新利用。

非常规淡水资源规模庞大,种类越来越多,潜力也十分巨大。首先是淡化的海水和高盐地下水。目前,100多个国家拥有18,000台淡化设备,可以生产大约320亿立方米淡水——大约相当于尼亚加拉瀑布每年流量的三分之一。

全球淡化水产量大约有44%来自中东和北非,亚洲、美国和拉丁美洲也都在建造新设施。全世界年淡化能力平均以7—9%的年增长率增长。

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