Il talento contro il capitale nel ventunesimo secolo

GINEVRA – Nel tentativo di promuovere la crescita economica, i politici si focalizzano quasi sempre su nuovi modi per liberare il capitale. Ma sebbene quest’approccio sembra aver funzionato in passato, rischia di non lasciare spazio al ruolo che ha il talento nella creazione e nella realizzazione delle idee che rendono la crescita possible. Di certo, in un futuro di rapido cambiamento tecnologico e di automazione diffusa, il fattore determinante (oppure il limite paralizzante) dell’innovazione, della competitività e della crescita sembra non essere la disponibilità di capitale, bensì l’esistenza di una forza lavoro specializzata.

Le forze geopolitiche, demografiche ed economiche stanno ridisegnando inesorabilmente il mercato del lavoro. La tecnologia, in particolar modo, sta cambiando la natura stessa del lavoro rendendo interi settori di occupazione obsoleti e creando allo stesso tempo delle industrie e delle categorie professionali del tutto nuove. In base ad alcune stime, la metà delle professioni attuali potrebbero essere automatizzate entro il 2025. Le speculazioni sulle conseguenze di questo cambiamento vanno dalla possibilità di nuove opportunità inaspettate a previsioni di disoccupazione su ampia scala a seguito dell’impiego delle macchine in gran parte dei lavori ora svolti dagli esseri umani

I primi segnali di questo stravolgimento sono già visibili. Secondo le stime dell’Organizzazione mondiale del lavoro, la disoccupazione globale ha superato i 212 milioni di persone, mentre se si vuole che l’economia mondiale garantisca l’occupazione al numero crescente di giovani che entrano nel mercato del lavoro dovranno essere creati altri 42 milioni di posti di lavoro su base annuale. Nel frattempo, l’anno scorso il 36% dei lavoratori a livello mondiale, ovvero la percentuale più elevata degli ultimi sette anni, ha sottolineato di avere difficoltà a trovare talenti.

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