Le marché du travail au XXIe siècle : Les talents par rapport aux capitaux

GENÈVE – Lorsque les décideurs politiques du secteur financier s’efforcent d’encourager la croissance économique, ils s’attachent presque toujours à trouver de nouveaux moyens de dégager des capitaux. Mais si cette approche a fait ses preuves par le passé, elle risque aujourd’hui de faire abstraction du rôle que jouent les talents dans la découverte et la concrétisation des idées à l’origine de la croissance. En fait, dans un monde en rapide mutation technologique et d’informatisation généralisée, le facteur déterminant  de – ou la limite invalidante à – l’innovation, la compétitivité et la croissance dépend plus de l’existence de salariés qualifiés que d’une disponibilité de capitaux.

Des forces géopolitiques, démographiques et économiques transforment sans relâche le marché du travail. La technologie, en particulier, modifie la nature même du travail, provoquant l’obsolescence de métiers et de secteurs entiers, tout en créant des catégories d’emplois et des industries complétement inédites. D’après certaines estimations, près de la moitié des emplois actuels pourraient être informatisés à l’horizon 2025. Les hypothèses concernant ce qui pourrait remplacer ces emplois perdus oscillent entre la création d’occasions inattendues et des prévisions de chômage massif, au fur et à mesure que les machines remplacent le travail humain.

Les prémices de ce bouleversement sont déjà visibles. Selon l’Organisation internationale du travail, le nombre de chômeurs dans le monde a dépassé 212 millions, et 42 millions de nouveaux emplois devront être créés chaque année si l’on veut que l’économie mondiale offre des emplois au nombre croissant de nouveaux arrivants sur le marché du travail. Dans le même temps, 36 pour cent des employeurs ont indiqué avoir des difficultés à recruter des employés qualifiés, le pourcentage le plus élevé depuis sept ans.

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