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应对非包容性增长

米兰—几年前,我有幸主持了一个发展中国家增长委员会。委员会成员拥有大量发展中国家经济、政治和社会决策经验,尽管他们各有不同,但在一些关键点上意见统一。其中有两点让我至今印象深刻。

首先,我们撰写的最终报告认为,非包容性增长模式最终永远要失败。这些模式无法产生持续的高增长,而持续高增长是减少贫困、满足健康、安全和为社会做出生产和创造贡献的基本志向的必备条件。非包容性增长模式无法充分利用或错误地使用宝贵的人力资源;也常常导致政治和社会动荡(以意识形态或种族极化为显著特征),随之而来的是剧烈的政策波动或政策瘫痪。

我们的第二项统一结论是持续增长需要合乎逻辑、适应力强的战略,它要基于共同的价值观和目标、信任,以及一定程度的共识。当然,实现这一点说起来容易做起来难。

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