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Pemberantasan Penyakit Tidak Menular

SEATTLE – Selama 25 tahun terakhir, berkat upaya global terkoordinasi untuk melawan penyakit-penyakit menular, termasuk malaria, tuberkolosis (TB), HIV/AIDS, dan polio, angka kematian balita dan anak-anak berkurang 50% dan rata-rata usia harapan hidup meningkat lebih dari enam tahun. Selain itu, jumlah penduduk hidup yang hidup dalam kemiskinan ekstrem sudah berkurang setengahnya. Jelas bahwa ini merupakan pencapaian hebat, tapi muncul tantangan-tantangan baru yang harus diatasi segera.

Ketika angka harapan hidup meningkat dan gaya hidup berubah, penyakit-penyakit tidak menular (PTM) seperti diabetes, penyakit kardiovaskuler, kanker, dan gangguan pernafasan semakin menjadi-jadi, bahkan menjadi penyebab kematian tertinggi di dunia. sekitar 3,2 juta orang meninggal dunia akibat malaria, TB, atau HIV/AIDS pada tahun 2014, namun lebih dari 38 juta orang meninggal dunia akibat PTM. Sayangnya, angka kematian tersebut terus bertambah.

Misalnya diabetes, salah satu PTM yang penyebarannya sangat cepat. Menurut laporan WHO (World Health Organization) terbaru, diabetes membunuh 1,5 juta orang pada tahun 2012, hampir sama dengan kematian akibat TB. Akan tetapi, kematian akibat TB telah berkurang setengahnya sejak tahun 1990, sementara efek diabetes naik dengan cepatnya. Pada tahun 1980, 108 juta orang menderita diabetes, atau 1 dari 20 orang; kini, lebih dari 400 juta orang, atau 1 dari 12 orang mengidap diabetes.

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