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Tuer les maladies non transmissibles

SEATTLE – Au cours des 25 dernières années, en partie grâce à une action coordonnée au niveau mondial pour combattre les maladies infectieuses, notamment le paludisme, la tuberculose (TB), le VIH/SIDA et la poliomyélite, les taux de mortalité infantiles ont été réduits de 50 % et l'espérance de vie moyenne a augmenté de plus de six ans. En outre, la part de la population mondiale vivant dans une extrême pauvreté a été divisée par deux. Ce sont de très grandes victoires, mais qui apportent une série de défis qui doivent être instamment relevés.

Alors que nos vies sont de plus en plus longues et que les styles de vie ont changé, les maladies non transmissibles (MNT), comme le diabète, les maladies cardiovasculaires, le cancer et les maladies respiratoires se sont implantées. Elles sont devenues de loin les principales causes mondiales de mortalité. Tandis qu'environ 3,2 millions de personnes sont mortes du paludisme, de la TB, ou du VIH/SIDA en 2014, plus de 38 millions de personnes sont mortes de MNT. Et le nombre de morts continue d'augmenter.

Voyons le cas du diabète, une des MNT à la croissance la plus rapide. Selon un rapport récent de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé , le diabète a tué 1,5 million de personnes en 2012, soit un nombre à peu près identique à celui de la TB. Mais tandis que les décès dus à la TB ont diminué de moitié depuis 1990, l'impact du diabète augmente rapidement. En 1980, 108 millions de personnes vivaient avec le diabète, un taux d'environ une personne sur 20 ; on en compte actuellement plus de 400 millions, soit un sur 12.

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