Franck Fife/AFP/Getty Images

杀死非传染性疾病

西雅图—在过去25年中,部分要归因于打击传染病,疟疾、结核病、艾滋病和小儿麻痹症的全球协作,儿童死亡率已经下降了50%,平均寿命预期增加了六年多。此外,全世界生活在极端贫困状态下的人口也降低了一半。这些都是重大成就,但它们带来了一组迫切需要解决的新挑战。

随着生命的延长和生活方式的改变,非传染性疾病(NCD),如糖尿病、心血管疾病和呼吸系统疾病等大幅涌现,成为世界第一大致死原因。2014年,死于疟疾、结核病或艾滋病的人数为320万,但有3,800万多人死于非传染性疾病,并且人数还在继续增加。

以增长最快的非传染性疾病糖尿病为例。据最新的世卫组织报告,2012年糖尿病杀死了150万人,和结核病相当。但1990年以来结核病死亡人数减少了一半,而糖尿病的影响迅速增加。1980年,1.08亿人罹患糖尿病,比例为20分之一;如今,糖尿病患者超过4亿,比例为12分之一。

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