Margaret Scott

O impasse sectário da Síria

PRINCETON – o que começou na Síria por ser uma revolta contra um regime opressivo evoluiu para uma guerra civil sectária e, mais recentemente, para um conflito por procuração. No processo, a luta tornou-se cada vez mais complicada com agendas conflituosas entre os aliados, juntamente com as profundas tensões comunais, tornando a situação quase intratável.

De um lado, os Estados Unidos, a União Europeia, a Turquia, a Jordânia, a Arábia Saudita e o Qatar apoiam a oposição - uma confusão de facções armadas com diversas agendas e ideologias que vão desde a síria nacionalista à jihadista mundial. Esta desunião reflecte as fissuras que existem na sociedade síria, resultado de mais de quatro décadas de um regime autoritário violento.

Do outro lado, a Rússia e o Irão (e o seu procurador, o Hezbollah do Líbano), cada um pelas suas próprias razões, apoiam o regime do Presidente Bashar al-Assad. As motivações da Rússia estão ligadas ao legado da Guerra Fria. O regime de Assad tem adoptado constantemente uma postura anti-ocidental, alinhando-se com a União Soviética e mais tarde com a Rússia. Hoje, a Síria representa o único ponto de apoio que resta da Rússia no mundo árabe, enquanto todos os adversários regionais de Assad são aliados dos EUA.

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