Margaret Scott

L'impasse sectaire de la Syrie

PRINCETON – Ce qui a commencé en Syrie comme une révolte contre un régime oppressif a évolué en une guerre civile sectaire et plus récemment, en un conflit par procuration. Dans ce processus, la lutte est devenue de plus en plus compliquée, avec des objectifs contradictoires entre alliés et des tensions communautaires profondes, ce qui rend la situation presque inextricable.

D'un côté, les États-Unis, l'Union européenne, la Turquie, la Jordanie, l'Arabie saoudite et le Qatar soutiennent l'opposition, une foule de factions armées avec des ordres du jour divers et des idéologies qui vont du nationalisme syrien au jihadisme mondial. Cette désunion reflète les fractures de la société syrienne, le résultat de plus de quatre décennies d'un régime autoritaire et brutal.

De l'autre côté, la Russie et l'Iran (et son mandataire, le Hezbollah du Liban), chacun pour leurs propres raisons, soutiennent le régime du président Bachar el-Assad. Les motivations de la Russie sont liées à l'héritage de la guerre froide. Le régime d'Assad a toujours adopté une position anti-occidentale, s'alignant sur l'Union soviétique et plus tard sur la Russie. Aujourd'hui la Syrie représente la dernière attache de la Russie dans le monde arabe, alors que tous les opposants d'Assad dans la région sont des alliés des États-Unis.

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