Margaret Scott

叙利亚的宗派僵局

普林斯顿—叙利亚的反抗压迫性政权的革命已经演变为宗派内战,最近更是成了代理冲突。在此过程中,斗争变得越来越复杂,各阵营间的冲突日程加上深层次的社会紧张,让局面几近不可收拾。

一方面,美国、欧盟、土耳其、约旦、沙特和卡塔尔支持着反对派——由各种武装派系组成的大杂烩,日程和意识形态各式各样,从叙利亚民族主义到全球圣战主义无所不包。其一盘散沙的状态反映了叙利亚社会的裂缝,这是四十多年残酷独裁统治的后果。

另一方面,俄罗斯和伊朗(及其代理人黎巴嫩真主党)出于各自的理由支持着巴沙尔·阿萨德政权。俄罗斯的动机与冷战残留思想有关。巴沙尔政权一直采取反西方立场,与苏联(后来与俄罗斯)站在同一条战壕里。如今,叙利亚代表着俄罗斯在阿拉伯世界的仅存的硕果,而巴沙尔政权的地区敌人皆是美国盟友。

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