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Сайкс-Пико, гарант Ближнего Востока, умер в возрасте 100 лет

БЕРЛИН – В разгар Первой мировой войны, 16 мая 1916 года, Великобритания и Франция подписали в Лондоне секретный пакт. Официально известный как «Соглашение о Малой Азии», этот документ, подготовленный дипломатами Марком Сайксом и Франсуа Жоржем-Пико, определил судьбу и политический порядок на Ближнем Востоке на долгие годы. Но его время истекло.

Столетие назад будущие европейские державы-победительницы были озабочены тем, как разделить этот регион, в тот момент входивший в состав Османской империи. Они провели «линию на песке» (как её назвал историк Джеймс Барр), протянувшуюся от средиземноморского порта Акка на севере Палестины до Киркука, расположенного в северном Ираке, рядом с иранской границей. Все территории к северу от этой линии, в том числе Ливан и Сирия, должны были отойти к Франции. А территории к югу от неё (Палестина, Трансиордания и Ирак) – к Великобритании, которая стремилась в первую очередь защитить британские интересы в зоне Суэцкого канала – главного морского пути в Британскую Индию.

Однако одновременно Великобритания вела переговоры с арабами, поднявшими восстание против османского правления при поддержке британцев и французов. В первую очередь, это были переговоры с Хусейном ибн-Али, шерифом Мекки. Хусейну пообещали Сирию в случае военной победы над турками. Однако согласно договору Сайкса-Пико, Сирия предназначалась Франции. Очевидно, что одну из двух сторон обманывали на счёт победных трофеев, и с самого начала было ясно, какая из сторон была слабее: арабы, стремившиеся к независимости.

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