Crise politique en Suède

STOCKHOLM – Après plusieurs décennies d’adhésion à des règles et modèles relativement stables et prévisibles, le monde politique suédois pénètre depuis quelques semaines en territoire inexploré. Nombre d’observateurs ont été abasourdis par le fait que le gouvernement se soit effondré, et qu’il ait été contraint d’organiser de nouvelles élections deux mois seulement après avoir pris ses fonctions. Jusqu’à présent, la Suède se démarquait en effet par sa réussite face à plusieurs années d’une crise européenne engendrée par la catastrophe financière mondiale de 2008. Qu’a-t-il alors bien pu se passer ?

La cause immédiate de la désintégration du gouvernement réside dans le refus opposé par le parlement à l’encontre du budget proposé par la coalition de centre-gauche, ce parlement s’étant prononcé en faveur du budget présenté par les partis de centre-droit de l’Alliance, qui constituaient le gouvernement précédent. Échouant à faire passer son tout premier budget – en raison de la décision soudaine des Démocrates de Suède (le parti SD, d’extrême droite SD) consistant à soutenir l’alternative de l’Alliance – le gouvernement ne pouvait tout simplement se permettre d’agir comme si tout allait bien.

La toile de fond de cet épisode remonte aux élections du mois de septembre, qu’ont perdues les quatre partis de l’Alliance après huit années au pouvoir (période au cours de laquelle j’ai exercé en tant que ministre des Affaires étrangères). Largement considéré comme efficace, le gouvernement de l’Alliance a dû se résoudre à cette réalité selon laquelle huit années constituent une éternité en politique.

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