Globalizar el desarrollo sostenible

WASHINGTON, DC – La cuestión de cómo el mundo puede poner fin a la pobreza extrema y mejorar el bienestar humano cobrará nueva urgencia en 2015, cuando venzan los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM) y se termine de dar forma a un nuevo conjunto de objetivos: los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible (ODS) propuestos.

El «Informe de síntesis» del Secretario General de las Naciones Unidas, Ban Ki-moon, que describe los principales elementos de la agenda pos-2015, proporciona una sólida guía sobre el aspecto que deberá tener el desarrollo sostenible y las acciones que deben implementar los líderes mundiales durante los próximos 15 años para lograrlo. Después de dos años de dar forma al «qué» del desarrollo sostenible, el próximo año debe centrarse en cómo lograrlo.

La ambición principal es audaz: erradicar la pobreza extrema para 2030. Para que eso ocurra, los ODS deberán apartarse del modelo de desarrollo del siglo XX, en el cual los países ricos daban dinero a los países pobres, principalmente para alimentar a los hambrientos, y mejorar la salud y la educación. Los ODM fueron extremadamente exitosos en varias de esas áreas. Pero el panorama ha cambiado significativamente desde entonces. Un nuevo conjunto de economías emergentes –que incluye a China, India, Brasil y Sudáfrica– busca modernizarse a toda velocidad. El sector privado está asumiendo un papel más importante en el desarrollo económico y la degradación medioambiental amenaza los logros de las décadas recientes.

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