Mondialiser le développement durable

WASINGTON, DC – La question de savoir comment le monde peut mettre fin à l’extrême pauvreté et améliorer le bien-être humain se posera avec une acuité renouvelée en 2015, avec l’arrivée à échéance des Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD) et la finalisation d’une nouvelle série d’objectifs – les Objectifs de développement durable (ODD).

Le rapport de synthèse du secrétaire général des Nations unies Ban Ki-moon, qui définit les principaux éléments du programme pour l’après 2015, fournit des lignes directrices solides concernant le développement durable et le rôle que doivent jouer les dirigeants mondiaux pour le concrétiser. Après deux ans de définition du développement durable, l’année à venir sera consacrée aux modalités permettant de le mettre en œuvre.

Le principal objectif de l’après 2015 est ambitieux : l’éradication de l’extrême pauvreté d’ici 2030. Pour le réaliser, les ODD devront s’éloigner du modèle de développement pratiqué au XXe siècle, par lequel les pays riches finançaient les pays pauvres, principalement pour nourrir leurs habitants et améliorer la santé et l’éducation. Les OMD ont porté leurs fruits dans plusieurs de ces domaines. Mais le monde a bien évolué depuis lors. Un nouveau groupe d’économies émergentes – dont la Chine, l’Inde, le Brésil et l’Afrique du Sud – se modernisent rapidement. Le secteur privé joue un rôle plus important dans le développement économique. Et la dégradation de l’environnement menace les gains de ces dernières décennies.

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