Vermont river sunset Adam Riquier/Flickr

L’importance des Objectifs de développement durable

ROME – Dans le sillage des avancées accomplies dans le cadre des Objectifs du millénaire pour le développement (OMD), qui ont guidé les efforts de développement à travers le monde sur la période 2000-2015, les gouvernements mondiaux négocient actuellement un ensemble d’Objectifs de développement durable (ODD) pour la période 2016-2030. Les OMD étaient axés sur l’éradication de la misère, des famines et des maladies évitables, et ont constitué les objectifs de développement mondiaux les plus importants de toute l’histoire des Nations Unies. Les ODD poursuivront cette lutte contre la pauvreté extrême, mais y ajouteront les défis consistant à promouvoir un développement plus équitable et une durabilité environnementale, avec notamment pour important point de mire la réduction des risques associés aux changements climatiques induits par l’homme.

Peut-on espérer que ce nouvel ensemble d’objectifs permette au monde de passer d’un fonctionnement habituel dangereux à une démarche de développement véritablement durable ? Les objectifs de l’ONU peuvent-ils réellement faire la différence ?

L’expérience des OMD se révèle encourageante et significative. En septembre 2000, l’Assemblée générale de l’ONU adoptait la « Déclaration du millénaire », laquelle incluait les OMD. Ces huit objectifs allaient devenir la pièce centrale des efforts de développement au sein des pays pauvre de la planète. Ont-ils véritablement fait la différence ? Il semble qu’il faille répondre à cette question par l’affirmative.

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