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La nueva agenda de desarrollo: más que una declaración de intenciones

MADRID – La celebración de la Asamblea General de Naciones Unidas del próximo mes de septiembre es especialmente relevante, por el aniversario que celebra y por ser un hito en la agenda de desarrollo global. Al repasar estos 70 años de Naciones Unidas encontramos muchas imperfecciones, momentos en los que ha permanecido inactiva o en los que su actuación no ha estado a la altura de lo esperable. Sin embargo, en algunos ámbitos su labor ha sido formidable. Ha logrado comprometer a los actores internacionales con objetivos globales, como es el caso del desarrollo.

En el año 2000, las Naciones Unidas aprobaron una agenda de desarrollo con el objetivo de dedicar todos sus esfuerzos a que ninguna persona sufriera las consecuencias de la extrema pobreza. Entonces muy pocos creían que en tan solo 15 años pudiera alcanzarse esa meta. Ahora, al finalizar el tiempo acordado, si bien no podemos hablar de una victoria definitiva frente a la pobreza, hay algunos datos que son muy esperanzadores.

Desde 1990, que es el año de referencia para medir los avances de los objetivos, el número de personas en el mundo que vive en condiciones de pobreza extrema (considerada como disponer de menos 1,25$ al día) se ha reducido en un 33%, de 1.926 a 836 millones. Y el mayor progreso ha tenido lugar desde el año 2000. Actualmente, 1,9 billones de personas tienen acceso a agua potable, un 15% más que en 1990. Las tasas de matriculación en enseñanza primaria han ascendido desde un 83% en el año 2000 a un 91% en 2015. La mortalidad infantil se ha reducido a más de la mitad y la maternal en un 45%. Desde el año 2000 el número de nuevas infecciones por el virus VIH/Sida ha descendido en un 40% y la ayuda oficial al desarrollo por parte de los países desarrollados ha aumentado en un 66%.

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