Women around Lake Chad Jeff Hutchens/Getty Images

A Próxima Fase da Acção Climática

FEZ – Em Novembro passado, enquanto a maior parte do mundo tentava desembalar a eleição de Donald Trump a Presidente dos EUA, teve lugar a Conferência das Nações Unidas sobre as alterações climáticas (COP22) em Marraquexe, Marrocos. Participantes de todo o mundo, incluindo 38 chefes de Estado e de Governo, reuniram-se para elaborar um plano de implementação do Acordo de Paris de 2015 relativo ao clima, que tem por objectivo limitar o aquecimento global a menos de dois graus Celsius acima dos níveis da época pré-industrial. Foi um importante passo em frente, mas a questão continua a ser muito mais complexa — e a ter maior carga política — do que a maioria gostaria de admitir.

A cooperação global que emergiu ultimamente é, sem dúvida, bem-vinda. Contudo, embora o trabalho em equipa seja fundamental para o sucesso, também o é o reconhecimento dos diferentes papéis e responsabilidades dos governos nos países industrializados e em desenvolvimento.

Os países industrializados geram, há muito, enormes quantidades de emissões e outros tipos de poluição, consumindo simultaneamente uma parte substancial dos recursos do mundo — incluindo 90% dos recursos hídricos a nível mundial — tudo em nome do seu próprio desenvolvimento. Consequentemente, estes países beneficiam actualmente de um elevado nível de vida e de segurança alimentar.

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