Women around Lake Chad Jeff Hutchens/Getty Images

La prochaine phase d’atténuation des effets des changements climatiques

FEZ – En novembre dernier, alors que la plupart faisaient tout pour digérer la victoire électorale de Donald Trump à la présidence des États-Unis, la Conférence des Nations unies sur les changements climatiques (22 COP) se tenait à Marrakech, au Maroc. Des participants de tous les coins du monde, dont 38 chefs d’État et représentants d’autorités nationales, se sont réunis pour élaborer un plan de mise en œuvre de l’Accord sur le climat entériné à Paris en 2015, qui vise à plafonner le réchauffement planétaire bien en deçà des deux degrés Celsius en sus des niveaux préindustriels. Ce fut un pas important en avant, mais la question demeure beaucoup plus complexe — et objet de tensions politiques — plus que la plupart voudraient l’admettre.

La coopération internationale qui en découle est certainement la bienvenue. Même si la coopération est essentielle pour obtenir des résultats, la reconnaissance des rôles et responsabilités distincts de l’État dans le monde industrialisé et en développement.

Les pays industrialisés émettent depuis longtemps des montants massifs de gaz à effets de serre et d’autres types de pollution, tout en consommant une part disproportionnée des ressources planétaires (dont 90 % des ressources hydriques mondiales) ; tout cela au nom de leur propre développement. De ce fait, ces pays jouissent maintenant des niveaux de vie et de sécurité alimentaire élevés.

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