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养鱼业的未来

纽黑文—海鲜需求正在迅速增长,这一趋势在本世纪都将一直延续。要满足这一需求,唯有依靠海产养殖。但是,尽管新一代海产养殖对生态来说远比此前更加友好,但能源消耗量也大幅增加。如果增加的能源不是清洁的廉价能源,那么新海产养殖技术就无法服务于环境和气候目标大局。

在一定的限度内,海鲜需求上升是一件好事。鱼肉比猪肉和牛肉效率更高,因为它们只需要较少的投入就能产生等量的蛋白质。因此,随着全球肉类消费不断增加,通过海洋获得可观比例的肉类很有意义。

另一方面,海鲜需求不断增加也带来了严重的生态风险。据联合国粮农组织,目前有近三分之一的全球鱼肉存量是通过不可持续的捕捞水平收获的,这意味着野生种群恢复的速度赶不上捕捞速度。而由于野生种群承载力无法满足需求的增加,更多的鱼肉必须通过养殖获得。

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