Der sunnitische Bogen der Instabilität

ABU DHABI – Viele internationale Beobachter sind auf den Einfluss der sunnitisch-schiitischen Rivalität auf die geopolitische Ausgestaltung der islamischen Welt fixiert. Dabei sind innerhalb des sich von der Maghreb-Sahel-Region in Nordafrika bis zum afghanisch-pakistanischen Gürtel erstreckenden sunnitischen Bogens immer deutlicher tiefe Risse erkennbar. Zudem sind es die sunnitischen Gemeinschaften, aus denen jene transnationalen Dschihadis hervorgehen, die sich zu einer potenten Bedrohung für säkulare, demokratische Staaten nah und fern entwickelt haben. Was treibt diese Fragmentierung und Radikalisierung innerhalb des sunnitischen Islams an, und wie lässt sich ihr begegnen?

Die Wichtigkeit der Beantwortung dieser Frage lässt sich gar nicht überbewerten. Die größten internationalen Terroranschläge, darunter jene vom 11. September 2001 auf New York und Washington, D.C. und 2008 auf Mumbai, wurden von brutalen transnationalen sunnitischen Organisationen (Al Qaeda bzw. Lashkar-e-Taiba) verübt.

Die militante sunnitische Gruppe Boko Haram, die durch Verschleppung von 276 Schülerinnen im April und ihre Zwangsverheiratung mit Boko-Haram-Mitgliedern internationale Bekanntheit erlangte, richtet in Nigeria seit Jahren verheerende Schäden an. Und den sunnitischen Extremisten des Islamischen Staates (IS), deren dramatischer Aufstieg mit unzähligen Gräueltaten im Irak und in Syrien einherging, ist bei dem Versuch, ein Kalifat zu errichten, jedes Mittel recht.

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