L'arc sunnite de l'instabilité

ABOU DABI – Alors que les observateurs internationaux se concentrent sur le rôle de la rivalité entre Sunnites et Chiites pour structurer la géopolitique du monde islamique, des fissures profondes dans l'arc sunnite (qui s'étend de la région du Maghreb-Sahel de l'Afrique du Nord à la ceinture de l'Afghanistan et du Pakistan) sont de plus en plus évidentes. En outre, ce sont les communautés sunnites qui produisent les djihadistes transnationaux, qui sont devenus une menace efficace contre les États laïques et démocratiques proches et lointains. Quel est le moteur de cette fragmentation et de cette radicalisation dans les rangs de l'Islam sunnite ? Comment peut-on les contrôler ?

On ne saurait surestimer l'importance de cette question. Les plus grands actes terroristes internationaux, notamment les attentats du 11 septembre 2001, les attaques sur New York et Washington, DC et l'attaque de Bombay en 2008, ont été menées par des organisations sunnites transnationales brutales (respectivement par Al-Qaïda et Lashkar-e-Taiba).

Le groupe militant sunnite Boko Haram, connu internationalement pour avoir enlevé 276 lycéennes en avril et les avoir forcées à épouser ses membres, font des ravages au Nigéria depuis des années. Et les extrémistes sunnites de l'État islamique, dont la montée en puissance dramatique a entraîné des horreurs indicibles en Irak et en Syrie, cherchent à établir par tous les moyens un califat.

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