Le Soudan, un exemple pour l'Afrique ?

JOHANNESBOURG – On dit à juste titre que le Soudan est un microcosme de l'Afrique. Aussi tout le continent va-t-il suivre attentivement les événements qui s'y dérouleront au cours des prochains mois.

Le 9 janvier 2011, la population du Soudan du Sud va décider par référendum d'opter ou non pour l'indépendance. Si elle décide de faire sécession, le nouvel Etat verra le jour le 9 juillet 2011. Et au même moment que le référendum, alors qu'il traite le problème des relations nord-sud à l'intérieur de son territoire, le Soudan devra parvenir à un accord global pour mettre fin au conflit du Darfour.

Pendant ses presque 55 ans d'indépendance, le Soudan a été le théâtre de conflits violents au sud, à l'ouest (avec le Darfour) et à l'est. On considère généralement que la racine de ces conflits réside dans l'incapacité du Soudan indépendant (l'un des pays africains les plus divers du point de vue ethnique, religieux et culturel) à établir un régime fondé tant en théorie qu'en pratique sur le principe de l'unité dans la diversité. 

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