分权的演进

剑桥—苏格兰人说话了。稳健多数在上个月的历史性公投中反对独立。但这场争论毫无疑问地表明,更大多数苏格兰人支持从英国手中获得更多的经济、社会和政治权力。而欧洲乃至全球其他部分的地区运动也提出了类似的要求。

分权的逻辑十分清楚。比如,苏格兰或许并不希望政府较现在有所扩大或缩小,但它希望能有不同的税收和支出组合。它希望得到更多的地方控制。计划于2016年生效的2012年苏格兰法(Scotland Act of 2012)为这一渴望已久的自治权提供了第一批授权。英国首相卡梅伦知道深知风向如何,也承诺会给苏格兰更大的权力。

但如果分权对苏格兰是有利的,那么对威尔士和北爱尔兰又何尝不是如此呢?为何英格兰人也不因此提出类似的要求?苏格兰人可以投票表决英格兰法律,而英格兰人不可以投票表决苏格兰法律,这样的平衡无法长久维持。

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