Zeman and Fico Samuel Kubani/Stringer

Le piège du populisme dominateur

LONDRES – Comme l’a démontré l’année 2016, il ne faut plus considérer comme acquise la pérennité de la démocratie libérale, pas même en Occident. En effet, l’analyse formulée autour des données du World Values Survey par l’expert en sciences politiques Yascha Mounk, de l’Université d’Harvard, démontre qu’au sein de nombreux pays occidentaux, la confiance du public en la démocratie s’érode depuis un bon moment.

Comment expliquer cette tendance ? Les révoltes politiques de 2016 démontrent chez de nombreux citoyens une frustration face à l’inaction démocratique. Faible croissance des revenus, chômage, inégalités, immigration et terrorisme ne leur semblent pas être appréhendés de manière suffisamment ferme. L’establishment politique des pays démocratiques leur apparaît dans un état permanent de léthargie, ce qui alimente l’aspiration des électeurs à l’intervention de dirigeants à poigne, qui promettent de rompre avec l’impasse politique, et de balayer la résistance bureaucratique à des politiques nouvelles et audacieuses.

Ces leaders politiques – qui affirment être les seuls à pouvoir régler les problèmes de leur pays – sont bien souvent issus du monde de l’entreprise. Nombre de citoyens considèrent qu’un PDG talentueux sera capable d’honorer des objectifs bien définis, et en concluent qu’un homme d’affaires sera plus à même de résoudre certains problèmes sociaux qu’un simple politicien.

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