Steve Ansul

A Segurança dos Materiais Nucleares

VIENA – Nos últimos anos, os líderes mundiais têm vindo a dedicar uma atenção crescente ao risco de obtenção de materiais nucleares ou outras substâncias radioactivas por parte de terroristas. Esta é a boa notícia. Contudo, todos precisamos de agir com maior urgência no sentido de transformar as boas intenções em acções concretas.

O risco de que materiais nucleares ou outras substâncias radioactivas caiam nas mãos erradas é bastante real. Têm existido falhas embaraçosas a nível de segurança em instalações nucleares e, frequentemente, os materiais sensíveis não se encontram protegidos de forma adequada. Com efeito, a Agência Internacional de Energia Atómica (AIEA) regista anualmente inúmeros casos de roubo e de outras actividades não autorizadas, que envolvem materiais nucleares e substâncias radioactivas. A maioria destes incidentes é pouco significativa, mas alguns são mais graves. Há materiais que desaparecem e nunca são encontrados.

Há dois anos, um incidente ocorrido na Moldávia com urânio altamente enriquecido - que pode ser usado para fabrico de armas nucleares – ilustra, quer o nível da ameaça, quer a possibilidade de aplicação de contramedidas eficazes, caso os países levem a sério o problema. A polícia apreendeu uma quantidade dessa substância na posse de um indivíduo que a tentava vender. Os traficantes construíram um recipiente blindado com o objectivo de evitar a detecção das substâncias - o que pressupõe um nível preocupante de sofisticação.

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