Cómo promover la inversión extranjera

MADRID – Como consecuencia de la globalización económica y del nuevo equilibrio de poder entre Norte y Sur, los países en vías de desarrollo y sus empresas se han convertido en actores económicos globales de primer nivel. Esta nueva realidad abunda en la necesidad de fortalecer el marco internacional de protección de la inversión extranjera.

Antes, la inversión extranjera directa (IED) fluía de unas pocas fuentes: los estados tradicionalmente ricos de Europa, Norteamérica y Japón. Hoy, la inversión transfronteriza de países como Brasil, India y China fluye no sólo a otras economías emergentes y en transición, sino también a los "antiguos" Estados exportadores de inversión extranjera directa (IED).

En el corazón del actual sistema de protección de inversiones se encuentra el Banco Mundial, que creó el Centro Internacional de Arreglo de Diferencias Relativas a Inversiones (CIADI) en 1966 en respuesta a las solicitudes que se presentaban requiriendo el arbitraje por el presidente del Banco de controversias de inversión. Sin embargo, institucionalmente, el CIADI ha evolucionado con menos éxito que los demás miembros del Grupo del Banco Mundial -en particular la Corporación Financiera Internacional- como consecuencia de un prejuicio profundamente arraigado en la cultura del Banco que ve en el CIADI un instrumento al servicio de los esfuerzos de las empresas occidentales de prevalecer sobre los estados en vías de desarrollo.

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