Le choix de Strauss-Kahn

CHICAGO – Lorsque Dominique Strauss-Kahn, ancien Ministre français des finances, a été nommé directeur général du Fonds Monétaire International en 2007, de nombreux pays en développement ont protesté, non pas contre ce choix, mais contre la tradition qui veut que la direction du FMI soit confiée à un Européen, tandis que les Américains réservent à l’un des leurs celle de la Banque Mondiale.

Ce système archaïque de captation des pouvoirs est un vieux reste de l’ordre installé après la deuxième guerre mondiale, dans lequel les puissances victorieuses se répartissent les postes clé des institutions économiques mondiales. Cet arrangement avait un sens lorsque les Etats-Unis et l’Europe représentaient respectivement 35% et 26% de l’économie mondiale ; mais aujourd’hui l’équilibre des pouvoirs économiques a changé. L’Amérique ne représente plus que 20% de l’économie mondiale, et l’Europe occidentale, plus que 19%.

Mais il y a une raison plus forte encore – bien qu’elle n’ait pas été flagrante à l’époque – pour justifier du fait que le directeur du FMI nommé en 2007 n’aurait pas dû être un Européen : éviter les conflits d’intérêt.

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