El juego sin fronteras de Asia

NUEVA DELHI – Hoy en día, muchas personas parecen más relajadas que nunca respecto de la nacionalidad, en vista de que la red Internet les permite trabar estrechas conexiones con culturas y personas lejanas, pero los Estados siguen siendo extraordinariamente susceptibles respecto de la inviolabilidad de sus fronteras. Al fin y al cabo, el territorio –incluidos los océanos, la tierra, el espacio aéreo, los ríos y los fondos marinos– es fundamental para la identidad de un país y modela su política de seguridad y de asuntos exteriores.

Los Estados pueden reaccionar ante controversias territoriales ora cediendo algunos aspectos de soberanía, con lo que debilitan su poder e influencia, ora adoptando una estrategia más vigorosa en materia de defensa nacional encaminada a repeler las amenazas actuales y prevenir las futuras. Actualmente, muchos países asiáticos están eligiendo esta última opción.

Piénsese en las controversias territoriales que agitan el océano Índico y otras regiones del Asia oriental, desencadenadas por las repetidas –y cada vez más enérgicas– medidas adoptadas por China para reivindicar la soberanía sobre grandes zonas marítimas. A medida que las incursiones de este país reavivan  desacuerdos que han ido fraguándose desde hace mucho y amenazan con desestabilizar el status quo regional, países de toda Asia están replanteándose sus posiciones estratégicas.

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