¿Fuereños en casa?

La migración es el aspecto de la globalización que, parafraseando a Oscar Wilde, no se atreve a decir su nombre. Los impulsores de la globalización le dan la vuelta al tema porque temen que provoque reacciones nacionalistas. Los adversarios respetables de la globalización lo evitan por temor a que se les tache de racistas o de ser insensibles a las dificultades de los pobres del mundo.

El silencio no sólo es perjudicial; es definitivamente peligroso. En teoría, la integración económica global implica un mundo en el que los mercados de bienes, servicios, capitales y trabajo están perfectamente enlazados. Aunque actualmente muchos mercados están cada vez más abiertos (aunque hay otros, sobre todo la agricultura, que permanecen distorsionados por el proteccionisno) la integración de los mercados laborales se ha quedado fuera del proceso de globalización.

Esto no es sorprendente. A lo largo de los siglos, los gobiernos se han preocupado siempre por proteger a "sus" trabajadores pobres y no calificados de la competencia de los inmigrantes. Por supuesto, tales preocupaciones se olvidan rápidamente cuando los países se enriquecen y los trabajadores locales ya no quieren realizar ciertas tareas. Parte importante de la historia de las grandes migraciones hacia los EU en los siglos XIX y XX se ajusta a este patrón. Lo mismo sucede con las migraciones indo-paquistaníes y afro-caribeñas hacia Inglaterra que siguieron la retirada del imperio durante la posguerra, y con las migraciones de argelinos a Francia y de turcos a Alemania durante el "milagro económico" de la década de los sesenta.

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