Способствуя равноправию

Нью-Йорк. По мере того, как в США и других странах ОЭСР растет уровень безработицы, создание новых рабочих мест стало главной задачей политиков. Недавно президент США Барак Обама предложил увеличить государственные расходы на 600 миллиардов долларов США в течение следующих двух лет для создания дополнительных четырех миллионов рабочих мест. Однако Обама также обеспокоен возможностью резкого роста неравенства доходов (которое сегодня на самом высоком уровне за последние 80 лет). Смогут ли лидеры достичь обеих целей в одно и то же время?

Ответ будет однозначно положительным, только если они сконцентрируются на правительственных расходах, а не реформировании своей налоговой системы. Этот урок имеет еще большее значение для других развитых стран, таких как Германия и Франция, которые тратят значительно более высокий процент своего ВВП на социальные программы (35% и 43% соответственно в 2005 году), чем США (только 25%).

Американская налоговая система, на удивление, имеет незначительный перераспределительный эффект. Используя меру «совокупного дохода» – денежный доход, доходы от прироста капитала, условная рента на занимаемый владельцем дом, неденежные государственные льготы и потребление общественных благ – налоги на доход, как правило, прогрессивные.

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