激发平等

纽约-随着美国和其他经合组织国家失业率的攀升,创造就业机会是决策者的一个重要目标。在美国,总统奥巴马最近提议在未来两年内增加六千亿美元的公共开支以创造四百万个新的就业机会。但是,奥巴马同时还要关心扭转急剧恶化的收入不平等问题(现处于80年来的新高) 。这些领导人有可能一石二鸟吗?

答案毫无疑问是肯定的,但前提是他们须把重点放在政府开支上,而不是改革其税收制度上。这个教训对于其它先进国家如德国和法国,更是有着强大的警示作用,这两个国家在公共项目上的开支所占国民生产总值的比例( 2005年分别为35 %和43 % ,)远远超过了美国(只有25 % ) 。

美国的税收制度的再分配作用很小。美国使用的是“综合收入” 的衡量标准-货币收入、财富的资本总收益、业主自用住房的推算租金、非现金的政府福利和公共消费-因此一般都是累进所得税。

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