El ciclo de la paz y la prosperidad

NUEVA YORK – En la sesión 68 de la Asamblea General de las Naciones Unidas, que comenzó el 17 de septiembre, los líderes mundiales están sentando las bases de una agenda de desarrollo que suceda a los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio (ODM), que caducarán en 2015. Los próximos Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible se basarán en el entendido de que el desarrollo económico es clave para mejorar el bienestar humano y garantizar los derechos de las personas más vulnerables. Sin embargo, para lograr avances genuinos, los encargados de determinar las políticas deben abordar los factores que limitan el desarrollo, en particular la violencia y los conflictos.

Según el Índice de Paz Global, poder contener la violencia (concepto que abarca los conflictos internos y externos, así como los crímenes violentos y los homicidios) costó el año pasado al mundo casi $9,5 billones, o un 11% del PIB mundial. Se trata de una cifra equivalente a 75 veces el volumen de la ayuda externa oficial en 2012, que alcanzó los $ 125,6 mil millones, y cerca del doble del valor de la producción agrícola anual del mundo. (Otro elemento de perspectiva es que la crisis financiera global ocurrida después de 2008 causó una caída del 0,6% del PIB mundial).

Esto significa que si el mundo redujera en cerca de la mitad sus gastos relacionados con la violencia, podría pagar la deuda del mundo en desarrollo ($4,1 billones), proporcionar fondos suficientes para el Mecanismo de Estabilidad Europeo ($900 mil millones) y financiar el monto adicional que se necesita para alcanzar los ODM ($60 mil millones).

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