O ciclo de paz e de prosperidade

NOVA IORQUE – Na 68.ª sessão da Assembleia Geral das Nações Unidas, que teve início no dia 17 de Setembro, os líderes mundiais estão a lançar as bases de uma agenda de desenvolvimento que irá suceder aos Objectivos de Desenvolvimento do Milénio (ODM), que atingem o seu termo em 2015. Os próximos Objectivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável serão baseados no entendimento de que o desenvolvimento económico é a chave para melhorar o bem-estar dos seres humanos e garantir os direitos das pessoas mais vulneráveis. Mas, a fim de fazer um verdadeiro progresso, os governantes têm de considerar os factores que condicionam o desenvolvimento, especialmente a violência e o conflito.

Segundo o Índice Global da Paz, o controlo da violência – incluindo os conflitos internos e externos, bem como os crimes violentos e homicídios – custou ao mundo cerca de 9,5 biliões de dólares ou 11% do PIB global, no ano passado. Isso é 75 vezes o volume de ajuda pública externa ao desenvolvimento, em 2012, que ascendeu a 125,6 mil milhões de dólares, e quase o dobro do valor da produção agrícola anual em todo o mundo. (Numa outra perspectiva, a crise financeira global pós-2008 fez com que o PIB mundial caísse 0,6%.)

Isto significa que se o mundo reduzisse a sua despesa relacionada com a violência em aproximadamente 50%, poderia pagar a dívida do mundo em vias de desenvolvimento (4,1 biliões de dólares), proporcionar dinheiro suficiente para o Mecanismo Europeu de Estabilidade (900 mil milhões de dólares) e financiar o valor adicional necessário para alcançar os ODM (60 mil milhões de dólares).

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