Il circolo pace-prosperità

NEW YORK – Alla 68a sessione dell’Assemblea generale delle Nazioni Unite, che si è aperta il 17 settembre, i leader mondiali pongono le basi di un’agenda per lo sviluppo in grado di succedere agli Obiettivi di sviluppo del Millennio, Millennium Development Goals (MDG), che scadono nel 2015. I prossimi Obiettivi di sviluppo sostenibili, Sustainable Development Goals, ben comprenderanno che lo sviluppo economico è la chiave per migliorare il benessere dell’uomo e garantire i diritti umani più vulnerabili. Ma al fine di compiere progressi reali, i policy maker devono affrontare i fattori che frenano lo sviluppo, soprattutto la violenza e i conflitti.

Secondo il Global Peace Index, l’anno scorso l’attività tesa a contenere la violenza, inclusi i conflitti interni ed esterni, nonché i crimini violenti e gli omicidi – è costata al mondo quasi 9,5 trilioni di dollari, pari all’11% del Pil globale. Che corrisponde a 75 volte il volume degli aiuti ufficiali oltremare forniti nel 2012, che ammontavano a 125,6 miliardi di dollari, e a quasi il doppio del valore della produzione agricola annua mondiale. (Per di più, la crisi finanziaria globale post-2008 ha causato una contrazione del Pil mondiale pari allo 0,6%).

Ciò significa che se il mondo dovesse ridurre le spese relative alla violenza all’incirca del 50%, potrebbe ripagare il debito del mondo in via di sviluppo (4,1 trilioni di dollari), garantire sufficiente denaro al Meccanismo per la stabilità europea (900 miliardi di dollari) e finanziare i fondi aggiuntivi necessari per raggiungere gli MDG (60 miliardi di dollari).

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