Le cycle paix-prospérité

NEW YORK – Dans le cadre de la 68ème session de l’Assemblée générale des Nations unies, qui a débuté le 17 septembre, les dirigeants politiques mondiaux établiront les fondations d’un programme du développement qui succédera aux Objectifs du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD) qui arrivent à échéance en 2015 . Ces nouveaux objectifs de développement durable seront basés sur l’idée que le développement économique est essentiel pour améliorer le bien-être de l’humanité et garantir les droits des populations les plus vulnérables. Mais pour obtenir de réels progrès, les décideurs politiques doivent s’attaquer aux facteurs qui entravent le développement, et en particulier la violence et les conflits.

Selon le Global Peace Index (Indice mondial de la paix), contenir la violence – dont les conflits internes et externes, les crimes violents et les homicides – a globalement coûté 9500 milliards de dollars l’an dernier, ou 11 pour cent du PIB mondial. Ce chiffre correspond à 75 fois le montant de l’aide extérieure au développement en 2012, qui s’est élevée à 125,6 milliards de dollars, ou près du double de la valeur de la production agricole mondiale annuelle. (Selon une autre perspective, la crise financière mondiale de 2008 a provoqué une baisse du PIB mondial de 0,6 pour cent seulement).

Cela signifie que si les dépenses liées à la violence pouvaient être réduites de 50 pour cent environ, les sommes épargnées pourraient rembourser la dette des pays en développement (4100 milliards de dollars), financer le mécanisme européen de stabilité (900 milliards de dollars), et l’achèvement des OMD (60 milliards).

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