Obama and Xi walking White House Photo/Pete Souza

Un replanteamiento de la relación entre China y los Estados Unidos

NEW HAVEN – A principios del próximo mes de julio, funcionarlos superiores de los Estados Unidos y de China se reunirán en Beijing para celebrar el sexto Diálogo Estratégico y Económico. Como las fricciones bilaterales están aumentando en varios frentes, incluidos los de la ciberseguridad, las disputas territoriales en los mares de la China Oriental y la China Meridional y la política monetaria, la cumbre brinda una oportunidad para reconsiderar en serio la relación entre los dos países más poderosos del mundo.

Los Estados Unidos y China están fundidos en un abrazo incómodo, correspondencia económica de lo que los psicólogos llaman “codependencia”. El coqueteo comenzó al final del decenio de 1970, cuando China estaba tambaleándose en el período posterior a la “revolución cultural” y los EE.UU. estaban empantanados en una desesperante estanflación. Con su apremiante necesidad de crecimiento económico, los dos países necesitados contrajeron un matrimonio de conveniencia.

China se benefició rápidamente de un modelo económico impulsado por la exportación y que dependía decisivamente de los EE.UU. como su mayor fuente de demanda. Los EE.UU. se beneficiaron, al recurrir a China en pos de productos de bajo costo que ayudaran a los consumidores de ingresos limitados a llegar a fin de mes; además, importó el ahorro excedente de China para llenar el hueco de una escasez sin precedentes de ahorro interno, con lo que los EE.UU. propensos al déficit aprovecharon al máximo la voraz sed de valores de su Tesoro por parte de China.

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