Die politische Disharmonie in China

NEW HAVEN – In den letzten Monaten des Jahres 2013 mangelte es in China wahrlich nicht an politischen Ankündigungen. Vom 60-Punkte-Programm der Dritten Generalversammlung des Zentralkomitees Anfang November bis hin zu den sechs Kernaufgaben der Zentralen Wirtschafts- und Arbeitskonferenz einen Monat später haben die chinesischen Politiker eine ganze Reihe neuer Maßnahmen für die großen Herausforderungen aufgestellt, denen das Land in den nächsten Jahren gegenüber steht.

Aber insgesamt gesehen besteht das Risiko von Unstimmigkeiten. Die Initiativen der Dritten Generalversammlung haben beispielsweise einen strategischen Fokus: Ihr Zweck ist die strukturelle Umgestaltung des Landes in Richtung stärkeren Konsums. Die Kernaufgaben der Arbeitskonferenz verkörpern zwar ebenfalls den Geist dieser Reformen, spiegeln aber auch einen taktischen Schwerpunkt wider: das „Wachstum stetig zu halten“.. Können die chinesischen Politiker angesichts der wahrscheinlich nötigen Kompromisse zwischen Strategie und Taktik – also zwischen langfristigen Reformen und kurzfristigen Wachstumsanforderungen – wirklich alle ihre Ziele erreichen?

Natürlich müssen die meisten Volkswirtschaften – ob entwickelt oder nicht – schon seit langem solche Kompromisse eingehen. Was China besonders machte, war die starke Bereitschaft des Landes, auf seinem Weg zu wirtschaftlicher Entwicklung die strategischen Ziele stärker zu betonen.

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