تنافر السياسات في الصين

نيوهافين ــ في الأشهر الأخيرة من عام 2013، لم تكد الصين تخلو من التصريحات السياسية. فمن برنامج الإصلاح ذي الستين نقطة والصادر عن الجلسة المكتملة الثالثة للجنة المركزية في أوائل نوفمبر/تشرين الثاني إلى المهام الست الأساسية التي أقرها مؤتمر العمل الاقتصادي المركزي بعد شهر واحد، اقترح قادة الصين مجموعة من التدابير الجديدة للتصدي للتحديات الجسام التي تواجهها بلادهم في السنوات المقبلة.

ولكن عندما ننظر إلى الأمر برمته فسوف يتبين لنا أن خطر تفكك السياسات بات واضحا. فمبادرات الجلسة الثالثة المكتملة على سبيل المثال تركز على الجانب الاستراتيجي: تعزيز عملية إعادة التوازن البنيوية الداعمة للاستهلاك التي انتظرها اقتصاد البلاد طويلا. وفي حين تجسد مهام المؤتمر الأساسية روح هذه الإصلاحات فإنها تعكس أيضاً تركيزاً تكتيكيا: "الحفاظ على ثبات النمو". ولكن في ضوء المفاضلات المحتملة بين الاستراتيجية والتكتيكات ــ أي بين الإصلاحات الطولية الأجل وضرورات النمو في الأمد القريب ــ فهل يتمكن صانعو السياسات في الصين من تحقيق أهدافهم كافة؟

بطبيعة الحال، كانت مثل هذه المفاضلات واضحة في أغلب الاقتصادات ــ المتقدمة والنامية على حد سواء. بيد أن الأمر الذي فصل الصين عن بقية المجموعة كان ميلها القوي إلى التركيز بشكل أكبر على أهداف استراتيجية في رسم مسار التنمية الاقتصادية.

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