La fin d’une planification chinoise centralisée

BEIJING – « Ne pensez-vous pas qu’il serait temps pour la Chine de s’affranchir du concept d’objectif de croissance ? »

C’est la question que je posai cette semaine au ministre chinois des Finances Lou Jiwei, lors du 15eForum annuel sur le développement de la Chine, qui réunit les hauts dirigeants chinois ainsi qu’une délégation internationale d’universitaires, responsables d’organisations multilatérales, et autres cadres d’entreprise. Ayant personnellement assisté au FDC depuis sa création en l’an 2000 par l’ancien Premier ministre Zhu Rongji, je puis témoigner du rôle que joue ce rassemblement parmi les plus importants lieux de débat en Chine. Zhu considérait en effet l’échange de points de vue permis par ce forum comme un véritable test intellectuel pour les réformateurs chinois.

C’est dans cet esprit que j’interrogeai Lou, que je connais depuis la fin des années 1990. Entre temps, l’homme a été ministre délégué aux Finances, président fondateur du fonds souverain chinois China Investment Corporation, puis a rejoint le poste de ministre des Finances qu’il occupe aujourd’hui. J’ai toujours trouvé que Lou était une personnalité très directe, intellectuellement curieuse, maître dans l’art de l’analyse, et pionnière dans la recommandation de réformes axées sur le marché. Lou est à peu de choses près taillé dans la même étoffe que son mentor, Zhu.

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