Petri dish cells Umberto Salvagnin/Flickr

Патент на непорочное зачатие?

ХАРЛЕМ (НИДЕРЛАНДЫ) – В 1899 году немецко-американский учёный Жак Лёб провёл успешный эксперимент по несексуальному размножению морских ежей путём искусственного партеногенеза – манипуляции с яйцеклетками, которая делает возможным возникновение эмбриона без оплодотворения. Его рассуждения о полном партеногенезе у млекопитающих (а также использование им термина «непорочное зачатие» для описания этого процесса) вызвали в обществе озабоченность – а надо ли разрешать учёным играть роль Бога?

Сейчас, когда Международная корпорация стволовых клеток (ISCC) пытается получить в Европе патенты на технологию по производству линий стволовых клеток путём партеногенетической активации неоплодотворённых яйцеклеток, пришло время ответить на этот вопрос. Но как?

Проблемы с выдачей патентов на партеногенетически активированные клетки не новы. Такие клетки напоминают человеческие эмбрионы, которые, согласно патентному праву Евросоюза, не могут быть запатентованы. Следуя решению Европейского суда (European Court of Justice) 2011 года о том, что такие клетки являются человеческими эмбрионами, рассмотрение патентных заявок на партеногенетические клетки в Великобритании и других странах было отложено, а в некоторых случаях они были даже отклонены. (В США у ISCC есть патент на стволовые клетки).

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