Innovación y desigualdad

PARIS – Cuando los beneficios del crecimiento económico se distribuyen de manera muy desigual, los lazos sociales se resquebrajan. Puede que aquellos que pierden terreno, especialmente los jóvenes, crezcan descontentos, y que luego se tornen en personas resentidas. Este fue un factor clave detrás de las revueltas de la Primavera Árabe, y, tal como las protestas en Chile, Brasil, Israel, Turquía y la India han demostrado, las tensiones sociales derivadas de la desigualdad están en aumento en todo el mundo.

Sin duda, la desigualdad de ingresos ha ido en aumento en todo el mundo durante décadas. Incluso, durante los períodos en los que muchas economías emergentes y en desarrollo sacaban a millones de personas de la pobreza extrema, la percepción de que el crecimiento se traducía en una mayor desigualdad siempre estuvo burbujeando por debajo de la superficie. Sin embargo, en la actualidad, el desempleo y el subempleo, que cada vez son más persistentes, están proporcionando nuevo impulso al incremento de la desigualdad, tal como la OCDE informó al G-20 en julio.

De hecho, en la estela de la crisis financiera del año 2008, el desempleo juvenil ahora se encuentra en un promedio del 16% en los países avanzados, y supera el 40% en algunos países europeos.

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