Innovazione e disuguaglianza

PARIS – Quando i benefici della crescita economica sono distribuiti in modo molto diseguale, i legami sociali si logorano. È molto probabile che per coloro a cui viene a mancare il terreno sotto i piedi, specialmente i giovani, cresca la frustrazione, e poi il risentimento. Questo è stato un fattore chiave dietro le rivolte della primavera araba; e, come hanno dimostrato le proteste in Cile, Brasile, Israele, Turchia e India, le tensioni sociali derivanti dalle disuguaglianze sono in aumento in tutto il mondo.

Di certo, da decenni le disuguaglianze di reddito crescono ovunque. Anche se molte economie in via di sviluppo e molte economie emergenti hanno risollevato milioni di persone dalla povertà estrema, la percezione che lo sviluppo stesse causando un aumento delle disuguaglianze è da sempre latente sotto la superficie. Ma ora le condizioni sempre più persistenti di disoccupazione e di sotto-occupazione danno nuovo impulso ad un loro incremento, come l’OCSE ha riferito al G-20 nel mese di luglio.

Infatti, sulla scia delle crisi finanziaria del 2008, la disoccupazione giovanile oggi registra una media del 16% nei paesi avanzati, e supera il 40% in alcuni paesi europei.

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