Innovation et inégalité

PARIS – Lorsque les bénéfices de la croissance économique sont répartis très inégalement, les liens sociaux s’effilochent. Il est probable que ceux qui perdent du terrain, en particulier les jeunes, deviennent de plus en plus mécontents, puis éprouvent du ressentiment. Ce fut un facteur clé derrière les révoltes du printemps arabe ; et, comme les manifestations au Chili, au Brésil, en Israël, en Turquie et en Inde l’ont montré, les tensions sociales qui découlent de l'inégalité sont de plus en plus importantes dans le monde entier.

Bien sûr, l'inégalité de revenu augmente dans le monde entier depuis des décennies. Même alors que de nombreuses économies en développement et émergentes sortaient des millions de personnes de l'extrême pauvreté, la perception que la croissance implique une plus grande inégalité est toujours restée présente sous la surface. Or, aujourd’hui, le chômage et le sous-emploi de plus en plus persistants donnent un nouvel élan à la hausse des inégalités, selon le rapport de l'OCDE au G-20 en juillet.

En effet, dans le sillage de la crise financière de 2008, le chômage des jeunes avoisine désormais les 16% dans les pays avancés et dépasse 40% dans certains pays européens.

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