Maintenons le cap à La Haye

WASHINGTON D.C. – Après huit années en tant que premier procureur du Tribunal pénal international pour l’ex-Yougoslavie (TPIY) à La Haye, Carla del Ponte est sur le point de partir. Il est impératif que les Nations Unies nomment un nouveau procureur disposé à poursuivre ses travaux au sein de ce tribunal mis en place par les Nations Unies pour juger les responsables d’atrocités commises durant la guerre des Balkans – par des Serbes, des Bosniaques musulmans, des Croates, puis des Kosovars albanais.

Le TPIY est le premier tribunal pénal international créé depuis ceux de Nuremberg et de Tokyo à la fin de la Seconde Guerre mondiale. Malgré des débuts laborieux, il détient le record admirable d’avoir jugé dans des procès fondamentalement équitables environ 80 inculpés, notamment des généraux, chefs d’État et directeurs brutaux de camps de prisonniers. Fleuron des tribunaux de crimes de guerre qui lui succèdent au Rwanda, en Sierra Leone, au Timor oriental, au Cambodge et de la Cour pénale internationale permanente, le TPIY est actuellement dans sa phase finale et doit fermer ses portes en 2010.

Ces dernières années seront décisives, non seulement pour la réputation et la contribution du TPIY, mais aussi pour le droit international humanitaire (ledit « droit de la guerre »). Le TPIY a supervisé la constitution d’une jurisprudence phénoménale qui ravive les principes abstraits du droit international. Il a clarifié le sens et les dispositions des conventions de La Haye et de Genève sur le traitement des prisonniers et des civils en territoires occupés. Il ne faut pas gaspiller ces acquis.

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