Udržme v Haagu kurz

WASHINGTON D.C. – Carla del Ponteová se po osmi letech ve službě chystá odstoupit z postu hlavní žalobkyně Mezinárodního trestního soudu pro bývalou Jugoslávii (ICTY) se sídlem v Haagu. Organizace spojených národů zřídila soud ke stíhání těch osob na všech stranách balkánských válek – Srbů, bosenských Muslimů, Chorvatů a později albánských Kosovanů –, jež spáchaly zvěrstva, a je nezbytné, aby OSN zvolila nového žalobce, jenž bude odhodlán na dílo del Ponteové navázat.

ICTY byl prvním mezinárodním trestním soudem od tribunálů v Norimberku a Tokiu na konci druhé světové války. Navzdory pomalému rozjezdu zaznamenal obdivuhodné úspěchy v úsilí postavit před soud asi 80 obžalovaných, včetně generálů, hlav států a brutálních velitelů zajateckých táborů, a zajistit pro ně fundamentálně spravedlivé soudní procesy. Poté co ICTY posloužil jako vlajková loď pro nástupnické soudy pro válečné zločiny ve Rwandě, Sieře Leone, Východním Timoru, Kambodži a pro stálý Mezinárodní trestní soud, ocitá se ve své poslední fázi, neboť se počítá s jeho uzavřením v roce 2010.

Tyto závěrečné roky budou rozhodující, a to nejen pro reputaci a odkaz ICTY, ale také pro mezinárodní humanitární právo (čili takzvané „válečné právo“). ICTY dohlížel na rozvoj neobyčejného orgánu právní vědy, který vdechuje život abstraktním poučkám mezinárodního práva. Vyjasnil význam a závazky Haagské úmluvy a Ženevských konvencí upravujících zacházení se zajatci a civilisty na okupovaných územích. Tyto úspěchy nesmíme promarnit.

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