Жажда капитала на территории Африки под пустыней Сахара

Ужасающая бедность и жизненные условия на территории Африки под пустыней Сахара были неоднократно выставлены на всеобщее обозрение по телевидению и через интернет. Но эти мучительные картины представляют собой только признаки основной и очень часто не освещаемой болезни: бегство капитала.

Бегство капитала происходит по множеству причин: погашение долга, выплаты иностранным фирмам практически по всем контрактам, финансируемым многосторонними кредиторами (а так же освобождение от налогов и пошлин на данные товары и услуги), неблагоприятные условия торговли, спекуляция, свободная передача выгод, валютные запасы, хранящиеся на иностранных счетах, и внутренний частный капитал, уходящий за границу. Согласно Организации объединенных наций по промышленному развитию (ЮНИДО), каждый доллар вливающийся в регион влечет за собой отток в 1.06 доллара.

Большая часть этого оттока происходит из-за долга: приблизительно 80 центов от каждого доллара, который вливается в регион благодаря иностранным ссудам, опять уходит в том же году. Это предполагает активное соучастие кредиторов (стран - членов ОБСЕ и их финансовых учреждений, особенно МВФ и Международного банка) и заемщиков (африканских правительств). Бегство капитала обеспечивает кредиторов средствами, необходимыми им для финансирования дополнительных ссуд странам от которых эти средства первоначально и пришли – схема, известная как "круговая хитрость" или "компенсационные" займы.

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