Le manque cruel de capitaux en Afrique Noire

Les conditions choquantes de pauvreté et de vie de l'Afrique Noire ont été exposées à maintes reprises à la télévision et sur Internet. Mais ces images atroces ne représentent que les symptômes d'une maladie sous-jacente (et en grande partie passée sous silence) : la fuite des capitaux.

La fuite des capitaux s'explique par un nombre incalculable de causes : le service de la dette, l'attribution aux entreprises étrangères de quasiment tous les contrats financés par des prêteurs multilatéraux (et les exonérations des taxes et des droits sur ces biens et services), des termes d'échange défavorables, la spéculation, le libre transfert des profits, les réserves de devises détenues dans des comptes étrangers, et les capitaux privés nationaux canalisés vers l'étranger. Selon l'Organisation des Nations Unies pour le développement industriel (UNIDO), chaque dollar injecté dans la région génère une sortie de 1,06 dollars.

La majeure partie de cette hémorragie est alimentée par la dette : environ 80 cents de chaque dollar qui est injecté dans la région grâce aux prêts étrangers en ressort la même année. Ceci implique une complicité active entre les créditeurs (les pays de l'OCDE et leurs établissements financiers, plus particulièrement le FMI et la Banque mondiale) et les emprunteurs (les gouvernements africains). La fuite des capitaux fournit aux créditeurs les ressources dont ils ont besoin pour financier des prêts supplémentaires aux pays d'où proviennent ces ressources, un système connu sous le nom de prêts « face à face » (round-tipping).

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