Stalins langer Schatten

NEW HAVEN – Vor achtzig Jahren, im Herbst 1930, setzte Josef Stalin eine Politik um, die den Lauf der Geschichte veränderte und über Jahrzehnte Millionen Menschenleben auf der ganzen Welt auslöschte. Im Zuge einer brutalen und rigorosen Kampagne zur „Kollektivierung“ brachte er die sowjetische Landwirtschaft unter staatliche Kontrolle.

Stalin verfolgte diese Kollektivierung trotz des massiven Widerstandes gegen den ersten Versuch einer Kollektivierung durch die sowjetischen Behörden im Frühling davor. Auf diesen Widerstand hatte die sowjetische Führung mit Erschießungen und Deportationen in den Gulag reagiert, um die Opposition im Vorfeld zu zerschlagen. Doch die sowjetische Bevölkerung leistete auf breiter Front Widerstand. Kasachische Nomaden flohen nach China, ukrainische Bauern nach Polen.

Im darauf folgenden Herbst wurden Erschießungen und Deportationen wieder aufgenommen und durch ökonomische Zwangsmaßnahmen ergänzt. Selbstständige Bauern wurden besteuert, bis sie sich dem Kollektiv anschlossen und dem Kollektiv bereits angehörende Höfe durften sich das für die nächste Ernte bestimmte Saatgut der selbstständigen Bauern aneignen.

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